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諧波危害

走進諧波

新時代背景下的諧波問題

現代電力用戶越來越多地采用電力電子設備(如:整流器、變頻器、開關電源、靜態換流器、晶閘管系統等)通過電力變換靈活取用所需的電力形式提高設備的生產效率、增加電力調節功能,這些設備統稱為非線性負載。由于換流的特性,非線性負載不可避免地造成了嚴重的電能畸變污染,其中最突出的問題就是諧波。

認識諧波

以變頻器為代表的電力電子設備與電弧爐為代表的大型沖擊性負載是諧波產生的主要原因。這些設備都會造成電流波形畸變,畸變的電流通過線路阻抗產生電壓畸變并向系統各處傳遞。

通過對畸變的波形進行FFT分析,可將其分解為一系列特定頻率的正弦波形,以下為分解圖例:

諧波治理的必要性


       完美的交流電能具有正弦特性,而電能受到諧波污染將表現為畸變的形態。大量畸變的電流注入電網中產生電壓畸變使電能質量越加惡化,進而突顯出種種問題。   

諧振現象

       諧波與系統阻抗和電容器會產生串聯諧振、并聯諧振,產生數倍甚至數十倍過電流,毀壞電容器。

對旋轉電機的影響

       電機在諧波環境下運行,發熱嚴重,引起嚴重的轉矩脈動,導致感應電機“堵塞”停轉;交流電機軸承故障。

對靜止電力設備的影響

       導致電纜、變壓器、電容器發熱明顯,功率損耗增加,容量降低。

對敏感設備的影響

       對類似計算機、精密醫療儀器等敏感設備,過大的諧波干擾會導致其數據丟失或是診斷誤差偏大。

對電力系統保護的干擾

       導致繼電保護裝置誤動作,產生連鎖效應。還可能影響斷路器、熔絲的開斷能力。

對用戶設備的影響

       對于利用電壓過零控制的電力電子設備,會造成誤動作。過大的諧波還會嚴重降低變壓器、電機、電容器等設備壽命。

對于通信的干擾

       諧波會降低信號傳輸質量并干擾信號,嚴重時可能使通信線路完全不能使用。

對于控制系統的影響

       控制系統中含有大量電子裝置,嚴重的諧波環境會造成其誤動作,或是控制精度下降。

電機噪聲

       過大諧波會導致電動機噪音嚴重,影響其工作效率,降低電動機壽命。

   
各行業諧波污染源
 

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